Josephine Baker was a revered American-born French entertainer, civil rights activist, and World War II spy. Known for her energetic performances and brazen style, she took the French entertainment industry by storm during the roaring 1920s and became an internationally recognized symbol of Jazz Age Paris. Baker broke racial barriers as the first African American woman to star in a major motion picture, the 1934 film “Zouzou.”
As an active member of the French Resistance during World War II, Baker gathered intelligence for the Allies in her capacity as an entertainer. Leveraging her celebrity, she mingled with high-ranking Axis officials and collected useful information, which she then passed on to French and British intelligence. The impact of her spying activities was significant. She contributed to the Allied victory by providing key information about airfields, harbors, and German troop concentrations.
- Josephine Baker was a famous American-born French performer and an influential civil rights activist.
- She made a name for herself as an entertainer in Jazz Age Paris, breaking racial barriers in the process.
- During World War II, Baker served as a spy for the Allies, feeding intelligence to French and British forces.
- Her significant contributions to the war effort helped the Allies achieve victory.
1. What are some of the awards bestowed upon Josephine Baker?
She was awarded numerous accolades, both during and after her lifetime, including the Croix de Guerre and Rosette de la Résistance, and she was named a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government.
2. What were some of Josephine Baker’s significant contributions to the civil rights movement?
During the 50s and 60s, Baker was a prominent voice against racism, refusing to perform in segregated clubs in America and speaking at the 1963 March on Washington.
3. How did Josephine Baker’s career progress in her later years?
Throughout the 1970s, she continued to perform and remained an active voice for equality and justice up until her death in 1975.
4. Did Josephine Baker have any children?
Yes, she adopted 12 children of various ethnic backgrounds, both to create her dream “rainbow family” and to demonstrate that people can live harmoniously irrespective of race or nationality.
5. Where can I learn more about Josephine Baker?
There are numerous biographies and documentaries about her life, and her World War II records are housed in the National Archives, USA.